Friday, June 5, 2020
Topic: One theatre critic has said of Twelfth Night: the key question seems to me how much one regards it as a festive piece of saturnalia, written for a very specific occasion, and how much as a dark comedy about impermanence and pain. What is your response to this question?George S. Kaufman duly notes that, The trouble with Shakespeare is that you never get to sit down unless youre a king (Epstein, 2). Similarly, one can also feel exhausted after attempting to discern whether Shakespeares play, Twelfth Night, or What You Will is more a festive piece of saturnalia, or more a dark comedy about impermanence and pain. It can of course be argued that this play is a romantic comedy written for a specific occasion. However, a closer examination of the role of the songs, the absurd ending, and the character of Malvolio leads one to see the darker elements of this comedy, and conclude that Shakespeares Twelfth Night is actually intended to be more tragic, and not simply comedic.The songs pl ay a vital role in creating a somber effect throughout the play. A melancholy tone is created immediately at the onset of the play as Orsino is listening to music. He aptly describes his state of distress when he states:If music be the food of love, play on,Give me excess of it, that surfeiting,The appetite may sicken, and so die.That strain again! It had a dying fall;O, it came oer my ear like the sweet soundThat breathes upon a bank of violets,Stealing and giving odour! Enough, no more!Tis not so sweet now as it was before.(Twelfth Night, 1.1)Although Orsinos comments can be interpreted as a way of satirizing the extreme yet almost mechanical emotions exhibited in courtly love, they nonetheless depict the tragic nature of the play. For instance, the reader can especially observe the theme of emotional pain during the fourth scene when Feste sings the following song:Come away, come away death,And is sad cypress let me be laid.Fly away, fly away, breath;I am slain by a fair cruel ma id.My shroud of white, stuck all with yew,O, prepare it!My part of death, no one so trueDid share it(TN, 4.2)The song suggests love is both misery and mortality. Appropriately, the song is preceded by an intimate dialogue between Orsino and Cesario, during which Cesario must kill Violas sexual frustrations. The motif of misery is further exemplified in Festes song at the end of the play. He sings about the wind and rain, a song that could seem like a trivial and ridiculous song at a superficial level. However, this last song plays the very crucial function of bringing the audience out of the world of Illyria and back into the reality of an ending holiday season. Hence the songs in Shakespeares Twelfth Night are placed at strategic points in the play, such as the beginning, ending and around intimate dialogues in order to stress the melancholic elements of the play throughout.Conversely, it could easily be argued that Twelfth Night is a festive piece of saturnalia. This is made espec ially apparent in the double dramatic irony presented in the play (Belsey). For instance, the audience is uncertain about which romantic pairs will form at the end of the play, thereby adding to the suspenseful and comedic effect of the play. Furthermore, the romantic pairs that do form at the end of the play do so in such a simplistic manner that it would be difficult to suggest that the playwright intended the audience to take a play with such an impulsive ending seriously. For example, Sebastian marries Olivia upon minutes of meeting her. Similarly, Orsino proposes to Cesario while she is still in her male disguise, thereby contributing to the light-hearted ambiance of the play. Likewise, the subtitle of the play, What You Will, further suggests the carefree nature of the play, where everyone will do as they desire, especially in their romantic lives. For example, the characters of the play fall in love with whoever appeals to them, without any regard for class or gender. In fact , the Italian word for will is volio, a word that constantly appears throughout the play in the form of anagrams in the characters names (Belsey). Hence, the emphasis on will, and moreover, free will is continually highlighted in the play. In fact, Shakespeare composes his work Twelfth Night, or What You Will for a holiday season, so it is easy to assume that the play is intended to be a merry comedy.Although it would be easy to mistake Shakespeares Twelfth Night, or What You Will as a comic piece of saturnalia written for a specific holiday, it is essential to examine the context in which the play is first presented. Shakespeare premiered his Twelfth Night, or What You Will to a smaller audience as opposed to a larger audience in the Globe theater. An entirely comical play would have been inappropriate for such an intimate audience (Auden, 153). According to literary critic W.H. Auden:at the time Shakespeare wrote the play, he seems to have been averse to pleasantness. The comic co nvention in which the play is set prevents him from giving direct expression to this mood, but the mood keeps disturbing, even spoiling, the comic feeling. One has a sense, and nowhere more strongly than in the songs, of there being inverted commas around the fun. The plays that followed Twelfth Night are the tragedies, as well as Measure for Measure and Alls Well That Ends Well, which are considered his dark comedies. (Auden,152)In assessing the social context of the play, we are given additional insight into its true melancholic nature. Analyzing simply the dramatic irony and subtitle of the play could lead one to falsely conclude that Twelfth Night is only a romantic comedy. In essence, the play is about both love and grief, their pains and their pleasures and how these emotions are often indistinguishable (Epstein,135, emphasis added).The greatest example of the melancholy nature of Twelfth Night is evident in the absurd ending. It can be seen as comic when Sebastian agrees to m arry Olivia without hesitation upon minutes of meeting her, and that Orsino proposes to Cesario, not Viola. However, there is an extremely unsettling element to this ending that prevents the audience from leaving the play with untainted exuberance. For instance, the individuals of the romantic pairs that form at the end of the play exhibit compromise. That is, Olivia, Viola, Orsino and to some extent Sebastian, do not obtain partners they truly desire. For example, although Olivia is truly in love with Cesario, she must settle for marrying Sebastian as his body is that of a male, unlike his disguised sister. However, it is important to note that it is precisely his disguised sister who Olivia sincerely adores, that is, Olivia loves Cesario for more than just his body, but for his mannerisms as well. Of course, Cesarios personality is undoubtedly comprised of Violas feminine traits, and therefore, it would be unfulfilling for Olivia to marry Sebastian. Likewise, it is also crucial to note that Orsino falls in love with Cesario, and not Viola. Although he proposes to Cesario, he must actually marry Viola in order to conform to the social conventions of his time. It could be assumed that Orsino exhibits homosexual tendencies, as is demonstrated by his extreme performance of the courtly lover to Olivia. He professes his undying love for Olivia continually, yet falls out of love with her almost instantaneously. He ironically describes in his dialogue with Cesario that:There is no womans sidesCan bide the beating of so strong a passionAs love doth give my heart; no womans heartSo big, to hold so muchMake no compareBetween that love a woman can bear meAnd that I owe Olivia.(TN, 2.4)We can infer from Orsinos remarks and behaviour that he is not just impulsive, but perhaps also a homosexual, for he expresses that only men are capable of loving passionately and later goes on to propose to Cesario. Of course, the character who makes one of the greatest compromises in lov e is Viola, for she marries a man who does not love the woman in her, but her male form of Cesario. Even Sebastian must abandon his loyal companion Antonio in order to earn a place in the chaotic Illyria. When Antonio is left isolated without his love Sebastian at the end of the play it creates a lasting impression of the pain enmeshed with love. Shakespeares Twelfth Night certainly emphasizes the impermanence and pain of love, as is most evident in the not-so happy ending of the play.In addition to the seclusion of Antonio at the end of the play, the depiction of Malvolio at the end also leaves an unsettling feeling of impending doom with the audience. Moreover, it is not only the unjust treatment of Malvolio at the end of the play, but rather, his entire character throughout the play that dampens the merriment of this supposed comedy. Malvolio is a member of the rising mercantile class, and therefore not a member of the elite aristocratic class of people surrounding him. He is eve n reminded of his mediocre status by the lewd Sir Toby, who asks Malvolio, Art any more than a steward? (TN, 2.1). Malvolios desperate attempts to rise in status lead to an uptight and arrogant disposition that elicits scorn from his acquaintances, and ultimately results in his demise. As the practical joke against Malvolio goes to an extreme and he is artificially deemed insane, the viewer may be tempted to lament for a character who is so far obsessed with the appearance of his virtue that he does in a way become insane over the idea of gaining greater influence. Though Malvolios thirst for power can be largely attributed to his egotism, one can feel sympathy for him when considering that this thirst stems from his insecurity over belonging to a mediocre class. Most importantly, the audience is left with a very bitter ending with Malvolios final cry of Ill be revenged on the whole pack of you! (TN, 5.1). As critic David Jones describes, this exclamation casts an even longer shadow over the play as it is going to have its answer forty years down the line when the Puritans come to power in England and every theatre in London is shut down (Epstein, 137). Thus, Malvolio only heightens the emphasis on impermanence and pain in Shakespeares Twelfth Night.Shakespeares Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a chaotic play infused with elements of sadness that are thinly blanketed by comedic pleasantry. The melancholy aspects are mostly exhibited through the songs in the play, the absurd ending and the character of Malvolio. Shakespeare often employs gender reversal in his plays in order to stress that All the world is a stage and we are all merely playing roles, ones that can be easily disguised and reversed. However, I believe that in Twelfth Night his goal with gender reversal is more profound because he suggests that we are not only actors in the drama of life, but we also play the roles that society demands of us. That is, we must suppress our innate desires in order to conform to externally set standards, and ultimately, it is when we deny ourselves our true passions that insecurities develop and lead to our misery and downfall. We see this depressing effect too clearly in Shakespeares Twelfth Night, or What You Will, when the major characters must settle for less than what they desire in marriage partners, and most especially with the tormented Malvolio. Thus, it is difficult to classify this play as simply saturnalia, as it should be more appropriately deemed as a dark comedy about impermanence and pain.BibliographyAuden, W.H. Lectures on Shakespeare. Ed. Arthur Kirsch. Princton: Princeton University Press, 2000.Belsey, Catherine Twelfth Night: A Modern Perspective. Twelfth Night. The New Folger Library Shakespeare. Ed. Barbara Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington Square Press, 2003.Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Shakespeare. Toronto: Penguin Books, 1990.Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night, or What You Will. The Longman Anthology of British Literature, Volume A. Ed. David Damrosch. Second Edition. New York: Pearson, 2003. 742-796.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Kevin Osman M. Ward Writing 140/ IR 100 December 7, 2007 Unity and Diversity: Finding the Proper Balance Unity and diversity are both qualities to be desired within society. Both, when balanced with one another, provide for the strongest form of society in which all are unified under some ideas, but differences are tolerated and accepted. One of the strongest factors of determining the present status of unity and diversity is the current state of affairs within a community. The current state of affairs can be altered by a number of issues, some planned and recurring, such as elections years, and some unexpected altogether, such as natural disasters. Within the global community, the current state of a variety of affairsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Previous to the beginning of the war in Iraq the American political parties, though not working together in perfect harmony or unison, had achieved some measure of cooperation and unity under the idea of patriotism. However, the execution of the war in Iraq has ripped apart any ties between the parties, as now Democrats and Republicans consistently bicker over the context and continued growth of the war efforts. As many Democrats call for complete withdrawal from the war-torn state and label the operation a disaster, a strong amount of Republicans still maintain the validity of the war and the need for the United States to remain in Iraq and complete the task that was started. This diversity amongst the politicians of America is not conducive to achieving successful results. A more united, unified opinion amongst politicians in America would provide a much better setting for either continued efforts in Iraq or the stopping of the war altogether. In this case, a better balance between diversity and unity must be achieved if any form of tangible progress is to be made. The previous examples have focused on examples with an excess of diversity and the need for more unity in order to fix the problem, however this is not always the case within society. There h ave been times at which too much unity of opinion exists and society blindly unifies for a causeShow MoreRelatedUnity in Diversity4053 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesUnity and Diversity: Finding the Proper Balance Ã Ã Ã Unity and diversity are both qualities to be desired within society. Both, when balanced with one another, provide for the strongest form of society in which all are unified under some ideas, but differences are tolerated and accepted. One of the strongest factors of determining the present status of unity and diversity is the current state of affairs within a community. The current state of affairs can be altered by a number of issues, some plannedRead MoreUnity in Diversity Skit1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfor technology industries but also because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s variety of people, numerous languages, multiple customs and traditions; different races with different faces and marvelous landscapes. These always project India among other countries like Ã¢â¬Å"unity in diversityÃ¢â¬ . Most of us never know about northern states and North Indians like vise- versa but yet we join hands to support any sensational news created by media like Anna HazareÃ¢â¬â¢s corruption mov ement. We never know how many languages are exiting in ourRead MoreUnity in Diversity Skit1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfor technology industries but also because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s variety of people, numerous languages, multiple customs and traditions; different races with different faces and marvelous landscapes. These always project India among other countries like Ã¢â¬Å"unity in diversityÃ¢â¬ . Most of us never know about northern states and North Indians like vise- versa but yet we join hands to support any sensational news created by media like Anna HazareÃ¢â¬â¢s corruption movement. We never know how many languages are exiting in ourRead MoreUnity : The Message And Diversity Is The Messenger1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages10/25/2015 Unity is the message and diversity is the messenger. The statement strongly clarifies the importance of diversity in order to change the world. Diversity means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. It signifies the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies which clearly signifiesUnity in Diversity. Introduction:Read MoreEssay on Unity Amid Diversity1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUnity Amid Diversity The 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s was a dawning of a new age. Many changes were occurring within AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Segregation was prominent with the passing of Plessy vs. Ferguson, however, the Jim Crow laws of the south were being challenged. Negroes in the south wanted equality and justice. The nation was in need of an ethic of caring and a solid identity of what it meant to be an Ã¢â¬Å"American.Ã¢â¬ With the war in Vietnam and the war for equality, people were fed up with all of theRead MoreUnity And Diversity Of Islamic Civilization. Set In The1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUnity and Diversity of Islamic Civilization Set in the Fourteenth century in different regions of Africa and Asia, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta presents a precise representation of Ibn BattutaÃ¢â¬â¢s rihla , exemplifying a clear distinction between the different countries and regions he visited. Ibn Battuta began his journey by setting off from his home Tangier, Morocco to Mecca. Ã¢â¬Å"I braced my resolution to quit all my dear ones, female and male, and forsook my home as birds forsake their nestsÃ¢â¬ (DunnRead MoreEvolution Drives The Diversity And Unity Of Life1674 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Big Idea 1- The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life Natural selection is evolutions driving mechanism. Evolution is Ã¢â¬Å"the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from early forms during the history of the earth.Ã¢â¬ Darwin s theory states that inheritable variations exist within individuals in a population. This big idea has impacted human life and evolution in many ways. With natural selection as its major mechanismRead MoreIs cultural diversity proving to be compatible with social unity1840 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIs cultural diversity proving to be compatible with social unity? Britain has changed quite significantly over the past few decades in terms of cultural diversity. Whereas Britain was largely white not so long ago, the number of ethnic minorities has been steadily increasing and this growth does not look likely to stop anytime soon. Demographic experts have, infact, predicted that by 2050, 1 in every 5 British person will belong to an ethnic minority. The question issue I will be discussing in theRead MoreGlobalization : The World And Created Unity Out Of Great Diversity Essay1542 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFor centuries, globalization has increasingly knitted Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬together the world and created unity out of great diversity. Coca Cola, Disney and McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolize the process, along with Sony, Shell Oil and IBM. They are products known and consumed from Ulan Bator to Little Rock - and also powerful companies that drive globalization forward, creating new laws, new business practices, new ways to eat and drink, new hopes and dreams. Optimists look forward to a global village, linked together by the InternetRead MoreRELIGIOUS PLACES IN SURAT India is a country which believes in the principle of unity in diversity.600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages RELIGIOUS PLACES IN SURAT India is a country which believes in the principle of unity in diversity. India houses many religions, cultures, traditions and customs. Some of the religions practiced in India are Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. Surat is the second largest city in the State of Gujarat which houses many of the sacred religious places. Some of the religious places at Surat are listed below: 1. Agam Mandir 2. Ambika Niketan Temple 3. Ambaji Temple 4. Khwaja
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Domestic Violence by Law Enforcement Officers: A Review on Police Brutality Joette Jackson Dr. Khalfani Sociology 101-008 April 1, 2015 Domestic altercation contributes the largest category of calls received by the po-lice annually. It is not surprising considering the vast number of womb who are abused by their significant others. Domestic abuse is a hard pill to swallow, it is a complex issue that plagues a society. Neither parties are likely to come forth with the traumatic details. It is easy to read on the internet about the perils of domestic violence. The common sto-ries of a man abuses woman, a woman kills child, for all to see. However, what causes violence to happen? Who really is to blame? The Judicial systemÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In recent years America has experience the largest amount of layoffs due to the poor economy. Imagine the weight of unemployment increasing daily, now imagine the stress that causes inside the households of Americans. Corsianos (2012) restated, the average Male officers in a large police department will cost taxpayers between two Ã¢â¬âand-a half and five-and- a half ti mes more than the aver-age female officer with regard to force liability lawsuit payouts. (National Center for Women and Policing 2002). Due to this Female officers are less likely to succumb to rage which leads to domestic violence. IMPACT ON VICTIMS Physical. Every nine seconds a woman is beaten by her spouse (Protection Against Crime, 2002). Seventy-five percent of the victims of intimate murders are female with a total of three to four million women being battered each year by their respective intimate partners (Protection Against Crime, 2002).The victims of domestic abuse by law enforcement officers endure a special kind of torture, that others in that similar situation do not. The victims are most likely to endure the dangers of professionals who are experienced in firearms, knowledge and training of subduing their victims, etc. During these types of events, one might lose the sense of control and order they once had in their lives. Victims of abuse may suffer physical and emotional pain from the ordeals they had to live through, long after their
I hold myself steady and cool as a rock. I breathe evenly and keep my facial expressions calm and controlled. I run my hands over the rectangles that hold my future. I flip up the corners of the cards again and look down at the odd, mismatched cards. Smiling gently, my adversary stares at me quietly and lights a cigarette, and as it catches, she inhales and props her feet up on the chair beside me. I see her eyes through the smoke and notice the wrinkles that appear every time I glance at her. Some of them are due to her age, the others to smoking, the rest to her life, but no matter the origin, I see the young driven woman she used to be. She used to be beautiful. She was tall and thin with long hair. She loved to primp and dress up just because she felt like it. We will write a custom essay sample on All In. Always. or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She lived to be her daddyÃ¢â¬â¢s little girl. She dreamt about being in the Navy. She also used to have all of her teeth until a drunkard knocked them out. She also lived to take care of her father as he died of cancer. She was also devastated when her mother refused to let her join the Navy, but then she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. She rebelled against society itself, drank, partied, loved and married a man that drank and abused drugs, and had three children, a boy and two girls. She used to decide between herself and her kids, the kids didnÃ¢â¬â¢t often win. She used to be a single mom after her divorce. She and her family used to scrape by on anything they could get their hands on. She would instantly come running when her son would drunk call her and threaten to kill himself. She put everything aside to help out the family. She would bury herself to help others. She used to work her life away to help fix everything. The importance of all of this is that she used to do it. Now, she is not only beautiful but wise. She is no longer tall and thin, but why should she be? She lives in gowns and t-shirts and cotton shorts. She keeps a picture of her father on her dresser. She has not had a drink since the year I was born. Her kids are now adults, but she treats them as if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re still in need of guidance. She is still single and in love with a man that died years ago from cancer, and she always will be. She no longer scrapes, however she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the frivolity to splurge. She still answers the phone calls and puts everything she can aside to help family, but her life is hers now. She lives in Florida. She moved away from here because that was her backup dream, to retire in Florida. She still works but lives the one dream she could get her hands on, and she worked hard for it. She has taught me more about myself and life than any person IÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever known. She has cried, struggled, fought herself, her family and others, but she never got an education. She has said over the years, Ã¢â¬Å"Education not only comes from school but from people, but a little school never hurt.Ã¢â¬ I have learned by my own experience that life is hard, confusing, frustrating, that responsibility and instincts donÃ¢â¬â¢t kick in until you need them, and that you can never go wrong going all in because youÃ¢â¬â¢ll experience and learn something unexpected even if you lose. She puts out her cigarette and asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you going to bet?Ã¢â¬ I nod and feel the plastic disks lying on the table. I throw in two and announce, Ã¢â¬Å"All in.Ã¢â¬ My grandmother flips her cards, smirks, and says, Ã¢â¬Å"Always.Ã¢â¬
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Speeding, Death and Effects on the Family Essay Speeding can cause instantaneous death and outright family kaput.Ã The result of speeding is so enormous that turns precious moments and valuable things into nothing.The invention of vehicles has brought things and situations better. But, does it really answers the original purpose or does it makes things and situations worst?This paper attempts to educate people especially drivers who are always involved with vehicular activities. The discussion will focus on the reasons why some drivers often commit over speeding and aggressive driving, the effects of negative impact of speeding towards the affected families, and how to control this unauthorized act that cause horrible adversities. The discussions include the reasons for over speeding and aggressive driving, hit and run, effects on the family, controlling the over speeding, etc.SpeedingThe Encarta Microsoft Encyclopedia (2006) defined Speeding as Ã¢â¬Å"driving vehicle above speed limit. It is an offense of driving a vehicle at a speed above the designated speed limitÃ¢â¬ .Angela Smith, a NIO Minister reveals in the BBC News (2003) that over the last 10 years, 358 people were killed and 3,471 were seriously injured because of speeding. Speeding kills or seriously injures one person every single day on Northern IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s roads in which young men (age 17-24 years old) are held responsible for a staggering eight out of ten fatal crashes.Reasons for Over Speeding and Aggressive DrivingVehicular crashes are complex events that are a culmination of various driver, vehicle or environment-related factors.Ã According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), driver-related factors that contribute to motor vehicle traffic crashes are mostly behavioral in nature which include impaired driving, aggressive driving including speeding and distracted driving, etc.NHTSA research has shown that crashes cost in $40.4 billion in 2000, which at least one driver was exceeding the legal speed lim it or driving too fast. This represents about 20 percent of the total economic cost of motor vehicle traffic crashes in the United States.Ã Accordingly, about 32 percent (annually) of all fatalities in motor vehicle traffic crashes were speeding-related, i.e., at least one of the drivers involved in the crash exceeded the posted speed limit or was driving too fast for the prevailing conditions.Based on the Telephone survey made by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1997) as posted in NHTSA website, the Ã reasons drivers most often gave for exceeding speeds that they consider to be unsafe were that they were late or behind schedule (44 percent). The next sets of reasons were: trying to keep up with traffic (12 percent), closely followed by good conditions (11 percent), or having an emergency (11 percent). Reasons for increased aggressively include: drivers being rushed or behind schedule (23 percent), increased traffic or congestion (22 percent), careless, inconside rate drivers (12 percent), and immature, young drivers (12 percent).Hit and RunThe Legal line (2007) defines hit and run as Ã¢â¬Å"a road accident where one of the parties involved fails to stop or leaves the scene without providing any detailÃ¢â¬ .Most of the victims die without justice. However there are also victims that survive in hit and run. Those survivors are still now looking for justice and in the state of phobia and disability status.The AAA Report stated that 1,557 killed by hit and run drivers in 2003 (.1778 per hour). This is 3.65% of the 42,643 total that NHTSA reported in were killed in US in 2003(Traffic Safety Facts). NHTSA report also states 2.889 million injured in crashes in 2003. Using 3.65% multiplier gives a total of 12.04 injured per hourÃ¢â¬ .According to Brad Heath of USA Today (2006), the number of pedestrians killed by hit-and-run drivers has jumped 20% since 2000 and is at its highest level in a decade, a USA TODAY analysis shows. The increasing occ urrence of this incidence compounds the problems of investigating hit-and-run cases, in which according to the investigators, are among the most difficult crimes to solve because they often happen at night with no witnesses.Of the 4,881 pedestrians killed last year, 974 died in hit-and-runs, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration records show. The total number of pedestrians killed nationwide increased by about 2% since 2000, but hit-and-run deaths increased at almost 10 times that pace, the USA TODAY analysis found.Lt. Doug Dodson, a spokesman for the Florida Highway Patrol said that in many investigations in which drivers are later found, drivers tell to the police that they fled out of fear or because they had been drinking and wanted to avoid legal trouble.Based on the statistic featured in the Missouri Sate Highway Patrol, which injuries appear to, be the most numbered but sad to say that there are also died as a result of over speeding.Ã It has also been revealed th at accidents often happen at the age of over speeding driver between 55 years old and above, maybe because this age has more experience in driving and they are confident to drive fast. Nevertheless, the survivor injured victims are facing psychological and financial problem. There are surviving victims that lost their career because of disability they get from hit and run accident. This causes the victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ family to suffer.Effects on the FamilyOne aspect of the consequences of motor vehicle crashes is economic cost. The pain and anguish suffered by an injured person as well as the burden placed on families caring for a disabled member go beyond any economic remuneration. Particularly, devastating are the effects on family members when a crash leads to death. The sudden and unexpected sense of loss can affect a family memberÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional state for years after the crash fatality occurred.A concrete example of the case of Hit and Run (as reported in Tuscaloosa News, 2005) is the situation of 23-year old Jaime Walker who was struck by a hit and run driver while riding his motorcycle in 2002. Since that date Jaime has been suffering from brain damage and has been in a vegetative state. Jaime receives nourishment through a feeding tube, doesnt respond to commands and is blind. As of March 2005, he resides at his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s home in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. His mother resigned from her job to take care of him full time.Controlling the Over speedingMany state or county have adopted different measures to control and lessen accident that killed thousand of people and injured millions of innocent. One of these measures is giving penalty to over speeding drivers.To be more effective in chasing offenders some City installed Red lights cameras to measure if the drivers are over speeding particularly in the cross section. This was manifested by the Albuquerque City plans to add red light cameras to 13 more intersections in an effort to cut down on accidents as r eported in the Associated Press, 2005. Accordingly, three people died in an accident that happened in an intersection when the drunk driver ran a red light. The City Mayor of Albuquerque, Mayor Martin Chavez said in Associated Press, that they are going to install red light cameras in places where accidents are observed between 2001 and 2003. Since the installation in 2004 from May to October, police officers have caught more than 9,000 violators and about 5,700 people have been issued with civil citations. Penalty is imposed wherein the first offense is $100, second $250, and $300 for the third time and the subsequent offenses.Stiff penalty to be imposed to motorists who violated over speeding is indispensable to control and minimize accidents caused by speeding vehicles.Ã Many states have already adopted strict and high penalties but unfortunately, in some instances, this does not solve the increasing occurrence of car accidents involving over speeding.The adoption of technolog ies and strict enforcement of traffic rules are the main reasons why car accidents often occurred though drivers and victims didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like it to happen.Ã It is however, the responsibility of every person to be cautious in driving but what really matters are the enforcement of laws and the strict adherence of these laws among the drivers.On the other hand, residents can be enlisted to help reduce speeding in their neighborhoods. The National Crime Prevention Council is encouraging the involvement of community residents so that speeding in residential areas could be easier to control or eradicate. It is true that residents do not want people speeding through their neighborhood, but there are simply not enough police officers to patrol every street.Ã By involving resiedents in speed control, police departments have a better idea of where to station officers.Ã It likewise acts as adult Ã¢â¬Å"peer pressureÃ¢â¬ .Ã Drivers or motorists will not speed if they know their neighbors are watching.ConclusionThe skill of vehicular driving has provided so many advantages to many individuals. It makes things possible and easy. In fact, in modern days, high-speed vehicles are made to cope with the urgency of traveling and getting off fast within precious times. However, this is being abused by many driver especially young men who are often encountering accidents because of speeding (over speeding). Until these days, this incident continues and even increasing.This is attributed by the following reasons which should be mitigated, to wit:1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Unauthorized driving or driving without license;2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Careless or reckless driving.3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Driving for an urgent appoint or emergency situation;4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Driving for fun like highway racing; and5.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Impaired or distracted driving.It has been proven that the effects of vehicular accidents caused by speeding are enormous; perish lives, damage properties, psychological stress, and defeats bright future (personal career, job opportunities, strong and happy family relationships, etc.).It is therefore imperative that more appropriate measures should be taken seriously which should include the following:1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Formulation of realistic policies and traffic rules;2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Effective and efficient enforcement of policies and traffic rules;3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Adoption and sustainable use of traffic devices and systems;4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Police OfficersÃ¢â¬â¢ skills enhancement;5.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Police visibility in accident prone areas;6.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Extensive information and education for all drivers and the public; and7.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Constant vehicular safety check.The consideration and implementation of the above mentioned measures is the best way of minimizing or eliminating vehicular accidents attributed by man. These should not be influence by personal interests of t he policy makers and law enforcements, and of course it should not be abused by the concern drivers who are the main recipients.The call for public awareness on safety and health should be strengthened.Ã This will enhance the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge on traffic rules and driving precautions, and the health or condition of the drivers who should avoid driving if they are not on the normal state of mind (drunk while driving) or doing something while driving like having a call using mobile phones, talking with passengers, Ã reading newspaper or magazines, etc.This is everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s concern, drivers or non-drivers. Always remember, safety first before anything else.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Aurochs essays The buffalo-like Aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius) once roamed over European plains with might and dignity, before its extinction at the hands of human hunters. Also known as the wild ox, the Aurochs grazed the fields of Central Europe and the Baltic coast, although most recently it was restricted to Poland, Lithuania and Prussia. In appearance, the male Aurochs was described as a fearsome animal. Measuring over 180 cm (710 in) at the withers, the bull Aurochs would stand taller than almost any hunter, and the species was not a pacific one. Fiercely territorial, bull Aurochs would attack almost any predator who entered their domicile, and despite its massive size, an Aurochs can move very quickly. (1) The Aurochs was covered in thick dark hair, usually black or brown in color, with a lighter colored ridge or ruff running the length of the spine. The facial structure of the Aurochs was most like that of the present day Spanish bull, with dark, tear shaped eyes, small tufted ears, a cro wn of hair on the scalp and a rather short snout. Aurochs also had a very impressive set of horns, which swept forward and spread out away from the face. These horns could often reach the length of 81 cm (32 in), and were used as decorative ornaments by hunters. (2) The thick neck of the Aurochs was also protected by a layer of fat, to better prevent and deter goring during the mating season. Like modern bulls, the Aurochs had a tufted tail, however, unlike modern day descendants, the Aurochs had more muscular and larger legs. This enabled it to cover ground easily. Males weighed up to 1000 kg (approx. 2200 pounds), while females were much lighter, approximately 700 kg (approx. 1500 lbs). In comparison, modern day cows measure at 141 cm (56 in) and weight in at 770 kg (1700 lb). (3) Although the Aurochs massive size ensured that very few predators would be willing to attack it, even in packs, size only made the species more appealing to man. ...
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Sam 488 unit 3 - Assignment Example By empowering and boosting morale, the manager can effectively be a good leader in embedding change across enterprise. The CSO transfer new knowledge by mutual learning and PDU points. Conducive research indicates that mutual learning is exclusive and symbiotic because it harnesses excellent learning. When change occurs, many employees are often confused because they lack the proper education. New training should be a mutual symbiotic relationship and not assigning courses to employees. CSO can achieve optimal growth by promoting overall growth and net scores. Net scores generally for employees are a great way to ensure that employees are satisfied with the overall quality of the work. Net promoter scores also measure the impotence of the organization from a holistic view which gives management a pure understanding of how the company is performing. Another interesting model proposed by research indicates that Information, Motivation and Behavior change model is deemed applicable even though so much used in promoting good health seeking behaviour by other life styles. Holistically speaking, this theory builds on a foundation of an effective communication, which takes into account of keeping in mind the need to work by investing in in the employee itself. A performance management systems leads to a better job improvement because employees are invested in the program itself and are willing to work hard. Most employees feel that they are happy with the goals of the organization as tuition is covered, work from home is a flexibility, and goal is inevitable. However, many employees also felt that growth is limited over short-term is not feasible. Additionally, larger organizations are known to segment its work in smaller departments, which can ruin personal development. Overall, the consensus was clear that larger organizations have a difficult time keeping the employees happy according